- Day of the Sun 2. Day of the Moon 3. Day of Mars 4. Day of Mercury 5. Day of Jupiter 6. Day of Venus 7. Day of Saturn
first day of the week, Old English sunnandæg (Northumbrian sunnadæg), literally “day of the sun,” from sunnan, oblique case of sunne “sun”. A Germanic loan-translation of Latin dies solis “day of the sun,” which is itself a loan-translation of Greek hemera heliou
second day of the week, Old English mondæg, monandæg “Monday,” literally “day of the moon,” from mona (genitive monan; see moon (n.)) + dæg (see day). Common Germanic (Old Norse manandagr, Old Frisian monendei, Dutch maandag, German Montag) loan-translation of Late Latin Lunæ dies, source of the day name in Romance languages (French lundi, Italian lunedi, Spanish lunes)
third day of the week, Old English tiwesdæg, from Tiwes, genitive of Tiw “Tiu,” from Proto-Germanic *Tiwaz “god of the sky,” the original supreme deity of ancient Germanic mythology, differentiated specifically as Tiu, ancient Germanic god of war, from PIE *deiwos “god,” from root *dyeu- “to shine” (see diurnal). Compare Old Frisian tiesdei, Old Norse tysdagr, Swedish tisdag, Old High German ziestag. The day name (second element dæg, see day) is a translation of Latin dies Martis (source of Italian martedi, French Mardi) “Day of Mars,” from the Roman god of war, who was identified with Germanic Tiw.
fourth day of the week, Old English wodnesdæg “Woden’s day,” a Germanic loan-translation of Latin dies Mercurii “day of Mercury” (compare Old Norse Oðinsdagr, Swedish Onsdag, Old Frisian Wonsdei, Middle Dutch Wudensdach). For Woden, see Odin.
fifth day of the week, Old English þurresdæg, a contraction (perhaps influenced by Old Norse þorsdagr) of þunresdæg, literally “Thor’s day,” from Þunre, genitive of Þunor “Thor” (see thunder (n.)); from Proto-Germanic *thonaras daga (cognates: Old Frisian thunresdei, Middle Dutch donresdach, Dutch donderdag, Old High German Donares tag, German Donnerstag, Danish and Swedish Torsdag “Thursday”), a loan-translation of Latin Jovis dies “day of Jupiter.” Roman Jupiter was identified with the Germanic Thor.
sixth day of the week, Old English frigedæg “Friday, Frigga’s day,” from Frige, genitive of *Frigu (see Frigg), Germanic goddess of married love. The day name is a West Germanic translation of Latin dies Veneris “day of (the planet) Venus,” which itself translated Greek Aphrodites hemera.
seventh day of the week, Old English sæterdæg, sæternesdæg, literally “day of the planet Saturn,” from Sæternes (genitive of Sætern; see Saturn) + Old English dæg (see day). Partial loan-translation of Latin Saturni dies “Saturn’s day” (compare Dutch Zaterdag, Old Frisian Saterdi, Middle Low German Satersdach; Irish dia Sathuirn, Welsh dydd Sadwrn). The Latin word itself is a loan-translation of Greek kronou hemera, literally “the day of Cronus.”