Along with the development of smart grids, the wide adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) is seen as a catalyst to the reduction of CO2 emissions and more intelligent transportation systems. In particular, EVs augment the grid with the ability to store energy at some points in the network and give it back at others and, therefore, help optimize the use of energy from intermittent renewable energy sources and let users refill their cars in a variety of locations. However, a number of challenges need to be addressed if such benefits are to be achieved. On the one hand, given their limited range and costs involved in charging EV batteries, it is important to design algorithms that will minimize costs and, at the same time, avoid users being stranded. On the other hand, collectives of EVs need to be organized in such a way as to avoid peaks on the grid that may result in high electricity prices and overload local distribution grids. In order to meet such challenges, a number of technological solutions have been proposed. In this paper, we focus on those that utilize artificial intelligence techniques to render EVs and the systems that manage collectives of EVs smarter. In particular, we provide a survey of the literature and identify the commonalities and key differences in the approaches. This allows us to develop a classification of key techniques and benchmarks that can be used to advance the state of the art in this space.
Abstract—Environmental concerns due to emissions from nuclear and fossil fuel based power plants have triggered widespread utilization of renewable energy-based small- and large-scale distributed generation technologies. These technologies have been transforming the energy market towards a deregulated and dispersed entity. To cope with these transformations, and ensure appropriate grid monitoring and control, the conventional power grids across the globe have been enduring a paradigm shift towards a smart grid that is empowered with cutting edge technologies. The operational stability of these emerging smart power grids necessitates sophisticated real-time monitoring and control technologies. This article analyzes various stability concerns in smart power grids pertaining to distributed generations and proposes novel methodologies for ensuring operational stability. The proposed methodologies entail real-time stability monitoring and stability control with the use of wide-area synchrophasor measurements and artificial intelligence methods. The efficacy of the proposed methodologies has been verified through simulation studies conducted on an IEEE 14-bus system. Results of this research validate the necessity of coordinated control for maintaining stability of smart grids incorporating distributed generation technologies.